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Aviation Learning Center Document AC 61-134 - Controlled Flight into Terrain Awareness
Author: Federal Aviation Administration Date: April 1, 2003
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Technical Solutions
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a. The development of the first Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GWPS) has contributed to a marked decline in CFIT accidents in air carrier operations. The use of GWPS and the newer generation Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems (TWAS) in GA aircraft has the potential to provide a similar savings in lives and loss of GA aircraft. As noted in various CFIT documents, the proper use of terrain awareness and warning systems is important to their effectiveness. Pilots are expected to execute the proper emergency escape maneuvers when their ground warning system activates.

b. Title 14 CFR sections 91.223, 121.354, and 135.154 mandate the installation of terrain awareness warning systems in turbine-powered aircraft as outlined in the appropriate section. The type of operation also includes specific passenger seat requirements/limitations for the operations involved as well as the required type of equipment.

c. As digital-mapping systems combined with satellite positioning data become less expensive, GA pilots may soon be able to graphically see their horizontal and vertical location at all times. Expanded situational awareness should help pilots avoid some types of CFIT accidents. Then the challenge will be to eliminate descent type CFIT accidents during the landing phase of flight.

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