Online Resource - Resources by Type of Operation

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Below is a list of online resources available in the Amateur Built category. The FAA is not responsible for the contents of the non-government sites listed. The list is provided only as a convenience to the users of this site. Click here to return to the category list

001. Certification of Experimental Aircraft (Read me first)
AC 20-27G Certification and Operation of Amateur-Built Aircraft. This is absolutely the read me first document.
http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC%2020-27G.pdf
001b. 14 CFR Part 1 Definitions and Abbreviations
Definitions of words such as: Consensus Standard, Gyroplane, Light-sport aircraft, Powered parachute, Weight-shift-control aircraft and many other handy terms.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr1_main_02.tpl
001b. Airworthiness Certification (General Information)
This link directs the user to general airworthiness certification information including the inspectors handbook, FAA Order 8900.1.
http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/airworthiness_certification/
001c. 14 CFR PART 21 Certification Procedures for Products and Parts
Part 21 is essential to recreational operators. It contains the requirements for certification of experimental and light sport aircraft.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr21_main_02.tpl
001g. 14 CFR PART 43 Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alt.
Part 43 contains the criteria of the quality of work done to standard category aircraft and recording requirements.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr43_main_02.tpl
001h. 14 CFR PART 45 Identification and Registration Marking
Part 45 contains information for the recreational aircraft operator concerning the marking of their aircraft.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr45_main_02.tpl
001i. 14 CFR PART 47 Aircraft Registration
Part 47 contains the requirements for buying, selling importing, exporting and registering aircraft.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr47_main_02.tpl
001j. 14 CFR PART 49 Recording of Aircraft Titles and Security Documents
Part 49 contains the requirements for recording the buying, selling importing, exporting and registering aircraft.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr49_main_02.tpl
001l. 14 CFR Part 65 Certification: Airmen Other Than Flight Crewmembers
Part 65 covers the certification of non-pilots, in particular aircraft mechanics, including the privileges and limitations of mechanics.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr65_main_02.tpl
001n. 14 CFR Part 91
Part 91 is the general operating and flight rules. This part prescribes rules governing the operation of aircraft (with certain exceptions) within the United States.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr91_main_02.tpl
001q. FAA-H-8083-2 Risk Management Handbook
This handbook is a tool designed to help recognize and manage risk. It provides training to the pilot who wishes to aspire to a greater understanding of the aviation environment.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-2.pdf
002. Locate an office
This link provides a list of certification and flight standards offices including a guide that directs the user to the proper office.
http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/locate_office/
003. Outside links
Certification Guides This link directs the user to a non-FAA web site. The utility of the site is that it provides certification check lists and other safety promotion information.
http://www.stacheair.com/
003d. EAA Chapter 62 Inspection Guide
This is an inspection guide made by the FAA Aircraft Certification Office circa 1995. It has not been updated, so the process elements may be out of date, but the specific inspection items are timeless, and very helpful.
http://www.eaa62.org/InspectionGuide.pdf
012. AC 65-23 Certification of Repairmen (Experimental Aircraft Builders)
Information to builders of experimental aircraft concerning repairman certification. Including, eligibility, privileges and limitations, application, surrender certificates procedures, typical aircraft operating limitations and sample FAA Form 8610-2.
http://www.faa.gov/forms/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/185870
016. Revised Listing of Amateur-Built Aircraft Kits
The link directs the user to a revised listing of aircraft kits that have been evaluated and found eligible in meeting the “major portion” requirement of 14 CFR Part 21.
https://www.faa.gov/aircraft/gen_av/ultralights/amateur_built/kits/media/amateur_built_kit_listing.pdf
017. FAA Order 8100.8 Designee Management Handbook
This order establishes policy and procedures for the management of certain representatives of the Administrator, including Designated Airworthiness Representatives.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentid/1019601
018. FAA Order 8130.2 Airworthiness Certification of Aircraft and Products
This AC provides guidance material on airworthiness certification and the issuance of Form 8130-7 for airworthiness certification of, light sport, and experimental aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentid/1027070
018. FAA-H-8083-19A Plane Sense General Aviation Information
Plane Sense introduces aircraft owners and operators to basic information about the requirements involved in owning a private aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-19a.pdf
019. FAA Order 8130.33 DARs: Amateur-Built and LSA Certification
This order provides guidance on Designated Airworthiness Representatives for amateur-built aircraft and establishes new criteria for light-sport aircraft airworthiness certification.
http://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/order/order_8130-33.pdf
020. FAA Order 8130.35 Amateur-Built Aircraft National Kit Evaluation Team
This order establishes a methodology to evaluate amateur-built aircraft kits. This evaluation is to determine if an aircraft kit allows a builder to meet the “major portion requirement”.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentid/1021346
021. Airworthiness Directives
This link directs the user to general information on ADs and continued operational safety.
http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/air_cert/continued_operation/
021a. AC 39-7 Airworthiness Directives
This AC provides guidance and information to owners and operators of aircraft concerning their responsibility for complying with airworthiness directives.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1019839
021b. AD Searchable Data Base
This link directs owners and operators of aircraft to the FAA online searchable airworthiness directive database.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAD.nsf/MainFrame?OpenFrameSet
022. Advisory Circulars Main Page
This link directs the user to a database of Advisory Circulars. This database is a searchable repository of all aviation safety Advisory Circulars (ACs).
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm
024. AC 00-24C Thunderstorms
This AC describes the hazards of thunderstorms to aviation and offers guidance to help prevent accidents caused by thunderstorms.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1020774
025. AC 00-25 Forming and Operating a Flying Club
This AC provides preliminary information to “flight-minded” men and women who wish to form and operate a flying club.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/92C74B41EDBD3E28862569E0007767A8?OpenDocument
026. AC 00-30C Atmospheric Turbulence Avoidance
This AC describes to pilots the various types of clear air turbulence (CAT) and some of the weather patterns associated with it.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1029211
027. AC 00-34A Aircraft Ground Handling and Servicing
This AC contains generally accepted information and safety practices which may help prevent injuries to personnel and damage to aircraft.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/B257578832DD5DD8862569D20070503C?OpenDocument
028. AC 00-45G Aviation Weather Services
This AC explains U.S. aviation weather products and services. It describes advisories, coded weather reports, forecasts, observed and prognostic weather charts, and radar and satellite imagery.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentid/215166
029. AC 00-54 Pilot Windshear Guide
This AC communicates key windshear information relevant to flight crews. It includes the first volume of the Pilot Windshear Training Aid.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/B3FB7DD636FB870B862569BA0068920B?OpenDocument
030. AC 20-24 Qualification of Fuels, Lubricants and Additives
This AC describes procedures which may be used for approving the qualification of fuels, lubricants and additives for use in certificated aircraft engines.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1024826
031. AC 20-30 Aircraft Position Light and Anti-collision Light Installations
This AC sets forth means, of showing compliance with the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) applicable to installed position lights and anti-collision lights.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/94D4758B3F48035186256BF40064457D?OpenDocument
032. AC 20-32 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Contamination in Aircraft
This AC provides information on the dangers of carbon monoxide contamination from faulty engine exhaust systems or cabin heaters.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/8251F23C84B19246862569AD00777359?OpenDocument
033. AC 20-34 Prevention of Retractable Landing Gear Failures
This AC updates statistical information related to landing accidents involving aircraft with retractable landing gear and suggests procedures to minimize those accidents.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/777228C04DE00D0A862569C3004BA5C4?OpenDocument
034. AC 20-35C Tie Down Sense
This AC provides updated information of general use for aircraft tie-down techniques and procedures.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/3121C979AF8A048C862569D60074B3B3?OpenDocument
035. AC 20-37 Aircraft Metal Propeller Maintenance
This AC provides information and describes maintenance procedures for owners, operators, and maintainers during the service life of aircraft propellers.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/895EFF1883EE06768625707B00727FD6?OpenDocument
036. AC 20-40 Placards for Battery-Excited Alternators
This AC sets forth an acceptable means of complying with placarding rules in Federal Aviation Regulations 23 and 27 with respect to battery-excited alternator installations.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/74C8B0D8089EEA6A862569AD00777421?OpenDocument
037. AC 20-42 Hand Fire Extinguishers for Use in Aircraft
This AC describes handheld aviation fire extinguishers. It is written primarily for large aircraft, but the information in this AC is acceptable for use by the operators of small aircraft.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/888491
039. AC 20-45 Safety wiring of Turnbuckles on Civil Aircraft
To provide information on turnbuckle safety wiring methods that have been found acceptable by the Agency during past aircraft type certification programs.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/C763D786B9D291BC862569B500768F5D?OpenDocument
040. AC 20-66 Vibration and Fatigue Evaluation of Airplane Propellers
This AC provides guidance and describes one method, but not the only method, for the evaluation of vibration stresses on propellers installed on airplanes.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1018497
041. AC 20-71 Dual Locking Devices on Fasteners
This AC provides guidance for the requirement for dual locking devices on removable fasteners installed in rotorcraft: and transport category airplanes.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/64B1B38BFC7F5CF5862569C3006C173F?OpenDocument
042. AC 20-77B Use of Manufacturers' Maintenance Manuals
This AC informs operators about the usefulness of manufacturer’s maintenance manuals for servicing, repairing, and maintaining aircraft, engines, and propellers.
http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC_20-77B.pdf
045. AC 20-103 Aircraft Engine Crankshaft Failure
This AC provides information and suggests procedures to increase crankshaft service life and to minimize crankshaft failures.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/D23CE9AE4E30A746862569BD00686F99?OpenDocument
046. AC 20-105B Reciprocating Engine Power Loss.
This AC updates statistical information and brings to the attention of aircraft owners, and maintenance personnel the circumstances surrounding engine power-loss accidents.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/9D911B67A95930FA862569D10077BD60?OpenDocument
047. AC 20-106 Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner
This AC describes techniques used in aircraft inspections. It is designed to familiarize owner, pilots, student mechanics, and others with inspection procedures.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22051
048. AC 20-107B Composite Aircraft Structure
This AC provides guidance material regarding composite aircraft structures involving fiber reinforced materials, e.g., carbon and glass fiber reinforced plastics.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/21315120FE14C2B28625762B0061DF3B?OpenDocument
050. AC 20-111 Communication Interference Caused by Stuck Microphones
This AC alerts operators to the potential hazards created by unintentional keying of microphones resulting in radio transmissions from radio transmitters.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/66E3B79240BD620E862569BD006870A7?OpenDocument
051. AC 20-176 Manufacturers' Service Documents
This AC suggests acceptable methods by which manufacturers may indicate FAA approval of recommended actions prescribed in manufacturers' service documents.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1024688
053. AC 20-119 Fuel Drain Valves
This AC discusses an acceptable means for positive locking of fuel drain valves in the closed position.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/FC8BD2EC0D5C0BE886256BF40064431A?OpenDocument
054. AC 20-123 Avoiding Depleted Uranium Balance Weights
This AC provides guidance to individuals who come in contact with depleted uranium contained in aircraft control surfaces.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/list/AC%2020-123/$FILE/AC20-123.pdf
056. AC 20-127 Use of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Class H11 Bolts
This AC provides guidance on the use of SAE Class H11 bolts in primary structure on all aircraft, including gliders and on aircraft engines and propellers.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/4E76EC0CA0A30971862569BA006F6028?OpenDocument
059. AC 21-23B Airworthiness Certification of Products Imported to the U.S.
This AC provides information on the FAA regulations, and general practices for U.S. airworthiness certification or acceptance of aeronautical products imported to the U.S.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/6410211F7772A92A86256F5100517D5A?OpenDocument
060. AC 21-26 Quality Control for the Manufacture of Composite Structures
This AC provides guidance regarding quality control systems for the manufacture of composite structures involving carbon, boron, aramid, and glass reinforced polymeric materials.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22254
061. AC 21-28 Certification of U.S. Produced Aircraft and Engine Kits
This AC provides information concerning airworthiness certification requirements for aircraft and engines, assembled from kits by manufacturers located in other countries.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/8E2723C6806B5A51862569B2005E7640?OpenDocument
062. AC 21-34 Shoulder Harness-Safety Belt Installations
This AC provides information and guidance for installation of shoulder harness and safety belt restraint systems at all seat locations.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/5214C6FFB14E1383862569B2005E77F9?OpenDocument
063. AC 23-27 Parts and Materials Substitution for Vintage Aircraft
This AC provides guidance for substantiating parts or materials substitutions to maintain the safety of old or out-of production general aviation aircraft.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/CCF7DAAC581048CD862575E6006CA078?OpenDocument
065. AC 23.629-1B Control Surface Flutter
This AC presents information and guidance for a generally recognized set of good practices for flight control flutter substantiation.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/371D5EA900EE1C1786256F2D0048ED41?OpenDocument
066. AC 23.1309-1 System Safety Analysis and Assessment for Aircraft Design
This AC sets forth an acceptable means of showing compliance with System Safety Analysis and Assessment for equipment, systems, and installations.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1019681
070. AC 25-16 Electrical Fault & Fire Prevention
This AC provides information and guidance about powerplant installation in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/769B6362EFD07B0386256E5F00502753?OpenDocument
072. AC 33-6 Weld Repair of Aluminum Crankcases and Cylinders of Piston Engines
This AC provides guidelines for the development of repair procedures for weld repairs on crankcases and cylinders of piston engines.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/996E9C7DE033074D862569B3005D6B00?OpenDocument
074. AC 33.17-1A Fire Prevention
This AC provides guidelines to ensure that the design, materials, and construction methods utilized will minimize the occurrence and spread of fire.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/99608
075. AC 35-1 Certification of Propellers
This AC provides guidelines for propeller safety analysis, propeller-level failure effects, bird strike, lightning, and centrifugal load testing for composite propeller blades and spinners.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/21ACAA66EDCD012C86257537006C005E?OpenDocument
076. AC 35.4-1 Propeller Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
This AC provides guidelines for controlling the content and distribution of the propeller section of the aircraft maintenance manual.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/6E01F1B5F14D299586256DD60067E023?OpenDocument
077. AC 35.37-1 Guidance for Propeller Fatigue Limit Tests.
This AC provides methods for the fatigue evaluation of propellers and the fatigue substantiation of composite propeller blades.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1018498
078. AC 39-7 Airworthiness Directives
This AC provides guidance and information to owners and operators of aircraft concerning their responsibility for complying with and recording compliance airworthiness directives.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1019839
079. AC 43-4A Corrosion Control for Aircraft
This AC is a summary of current available data regarding identification and treatment of corrosive attack on aircraft structure and engine materials.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/A7FFC0F8B6216A43862569B5005081ED?OpenDocument
080. AC 43-9C Maintenance Records
This AC describes methods of showing compliance with the general aviation maintenance record making and record keeping.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/CFB1221D9B8038B9862569C40075C77F?OpenDocument
081. AC 43-10 United States - Canadian BASA/MIP Maintenance
This AC provides airmen with procedures for maintenance on U.S. aircraft located in Canada by Canadian Maintainers and Canadian aircraft located in the U.S. by U.S. Maintainers.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1018679
084. AC 43.13-1 Chg.1 Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices Aircraft Ins
This AC contains methods acceptable to the Administrator for the inspection and repair of civil aircraft, only when there are no manufacturer repair or maintenance instructions.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/99C827DB9BAAC81B86256B4500596C4E?OpenDocument
085. AC 43.13-2 Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices for Alteration
This AC contains methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Administrator for the inspection and alteration on non-pressurized areas of small civil aircraft.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/11E144125D63FE548625740A00731B4A?OpenDocument
088. AC 43-18 Fabrication of Aircraft parts by Maintenance Personnel
This AC is to ensure that parts fabricated during maintenance have an equivalent level of safety to those parts produced under the original design holder’s production certificate.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/99860
090. AC 45-2 Identification and Registration Markings
This AC describes a means to comply with the requirements for identifying aircraft, engines, or propellers with identification plates, and marking aircraft with registration marks.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1028370
091. AC 45-3 Installation, Removal, or Change of Data Plates
This AC provides information and guidance concerning the installation, removal, or change of identification data and identification plates on aircraft engines.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/319188
093. AC 60-6B Airplane Flight Manuals
This AC calls attention to the regulatory requirements governing airplane flight manuals, approved manual materials, markings, and placards.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/305777D0E59BFA1F862569EE0077E564?OpenDocument
094. AC 60-22 Aeronautical Decision Making
This AC provides reference material on Aeronautical Decision Making. It provides a systematic approach to risk and stress management.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/CCDD54376BFDF5FD862569D100733983?OpenDocument
096. AC 61-83 FAA-Approved Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics
This AC provides information for the preparation and approval of training course outlines for FAA approved industry-conducted CFI refresher clinics.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1027903
098. AC 61-98 Currency and Qualification Requirements for Certificated Pilots
This AC provides information for certificated pilots and flight instructors to use in complying with the flight review required by FAR’s.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1028650
099. AC 61-103 Transition Training Guidelines for High Perf Acft (CANCELLED)
This AC informs all pilots and flight instructors of the availability of guidelines for pilots transitioning into high performance airplanes.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22890
100. AC 61-134 General Aviation Controlled Flight into Terrain Awareness
This AC highlights the risk that controlled flight into terrain poses for general aviation pilots. It provides recommendations and strategies to combat CFIT.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22907
105. AC 65-30 Overview of the Aviation Maintenance Profession
This AC provides information to prospective aircraft mechanics. It contains information about certificate requirements, application procedures, and mechanic tests.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/316D2E08216D93B186256C8A0071C36F?OpenDocument
106. AC 65-32 Certification of Repairmen (Light-Sport Aircraft)
This AC provides the public with information regarding the certification of repairmen (light-sport aircraft) with maintenance and inspection ratings.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1020758
108. AC 90-42F Traffic Advisory at Airports without Operating Control Towers
This AC contains good operating practices and procedures for use when approaching or departing airports without an operating control tower.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/C54E50252A7FA56D862569D8007804BA?OpenDocument
109. AC 90-48 Pilots' Role in Collision Avoidance
This AC alerts all pilots to the hazards of midair collision, and emphasizes those problem areas where improvements in pilot education are needed to reduce midair conflicts.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1029428
110. AC 90-66A Traffic Patterns for Airports without Operating Control Towers
This AC calls attention to procedures for operations at airports without operating control towers. It recommends traffic patterns and operational procedures.
http://rgl.faa.gov/REGULATORY_AND_GUIDANCE_LIBRARY/RGADVISORYCIRCULAR.NSF/0/74c9017c9457e4ab862569d800780551?OpenDocument&Highlight=90-66
112. AC 90-75 Strobe Light System Inspection
This AC is issued to advise the general aviation community of the importance of proper maintenance of strobe light systems which are installed within or near fuel systems.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/2E02B492DC14CED8862569D8007805E7?OpenDocument
113. AC 43.13-2 Methods, Techniques, and Practices-Aircraft Alteration
This AC contains methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Administrator for the inspection and alteration on non-pressurized areas of small civil aircraft.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/11E144125D63FE548625740A00731B4A?OpenDocument
114. AC 90-87 Helicopter Dynamic Rollover CANCELLED
This AC familiarizes helicopter pilots with the hazards associated with dynamic rollover a phenomenon that will, without immediate corrective action, result in destruction of the helicopter.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/23126
114.5 AC 90-89 Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook
This AC sets forth suggestions and safety related recommendations to assist amateur and ultralight builders in developing individualized aircraft flight test plans.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1027429
115. AC 90-95 Unanticipated Right Yaw in Helicopters
This AC will examine unanticipated right yaw phenomenon, when it may be encountered, how it can be prevented, and how the pilot should react if it is encountered
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/ABA9E26C4D43DFAB862569E7007463BF?OpenDocument
116. AC 91.11-1 Guide to Drug Hazards in Aviation Medicine
This AC was prepared to familiarize airmen with the effect of various commonly prescribed drugs on airman performance.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/81B99ECC2016242B86256A8C00728EA6?OpenDocument
117. AC 91-13C Cold Weather Operation of Aircraft
This AC provides background and guidelines relating to operation of aircraft in the colder climates where wide temperature changes may occur.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/0A6BF63C8FB95285862569D900744829?OpenDocument
118. AC 91-26 Maintenance and Handling of Air Driven Gyroscopic Instruments
This AC is issued to advise operators of aviation aircraft of the need for proper maintenance of air-driven general gyroscopic instruments and their air filters.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/57995EEFD4C050CA862569D9007448AC?OpenDocument
119. AC 91-32B Safety in and Around Helicopters
This AC provides safety guidelines for persons associated with helicopter operations and suggests ways to avoid hazards and reduce the risk of accidents.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/1B6EB811481730F5862569D90074492E?OpenDocument
120. AC 91-33A Use of Alternate Grades of Aviation Gasoline for Grade 80/87
This AC Circular provides information relating to the use of alternate grades of gasoline when Grade 80/87 aviation gasoline is not available.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/5ABBEF4B4EF9830C862569BA006F6E01?OpenDocument
122. AC 91-36D Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Flight Near Noise-Sensitive Areas
This AC encourages pilots making VFR flights near noise-sensitive areas to fly at altitudes higher than the minimum permitted by regulation.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/208330D7EFAD2BF9862570650070769F?OpenDocument
123. AC 91-42D Hazards of Rotating Propeller and Helicopter Rotor Blades
This AC provides information on propeller and rotor to person accidents and offers suggestions to reduce the frequency of those accidents.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/38A9C2ADACBE78DF862569E7007464EC?OpenDocument
124. AC 91-43 Unreliable Airspeed Indications (CANCELLED)
The purpose of this AC is to alert pilots to the possibility of erroneous airspeed indications that may be caused by blocking or freezing of the pitot system.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/23160
126. AC 91-46 Gyroscopic Instruments - Good Operating Practices
This AC emphasizes to instrument-rated pilots the need to check the proper operation of gyro instruments, the importance of instrument cross-checks and proficiency in partial-panel operations.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/13D8BADB94495B9E862569E70077C878?OpenDocument
127. AC 91-48 Acrobatics - Precision Flying With a Purpose
This AC provides information to persons who are interested in acrobatics to improve their piloting skills as recreation, sport, or as a competitive activity.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/74A345CCF8EB48A6862569D900744BE1?OpenDocument
128. AC 91-50 Importance of Transponder Operation and Altitude Reporting
This AC provides information and guidance concerning the importance of transponder operation and altitude reporting in the National Airspace System.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/276607E86C52126C862569E70077C8D1?OpenDocument
129. AC 91-55 Reduction of Electrical System Failures on Engine Starting
This AC is to warn general aviation aircraft owner/pilots and maintenance personnel of possible total electrical system failure following aircraft engine starting.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/F9FCFE92B96DF9FA862569D900744C44?OpenDocument
130. AC 91-56 Continuing Structural Integrity Program for Airplanes
This AC provides guidance material to operators for use in developing a damage tolerance based supplemental structural inspection program for older airplanes.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22423
131. AC 91-59 Inspection and Care of General Aviation Exhaust Systems
This AC emphasizes the safety hazards of poorly maintained aircraft exhaust systems and highlights points at which exhaust system failures occur.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/882287E4FFBBC3EC8625732400584D69?OpenDocument
132. AC 91-61 A Hazard in Aerobatics: Effects of G-Forces of Pilots
This AC is to warn pilots who engage in aerobatics, or those who would take up such activity, of G loading and some of its physiological effects.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/23234BF17C35918E862569D900744D21?OpenDocument
134. AC 91-65 Use of Shoulder Harness in Passenger Seats
This AC provides information to pilots and passengers, regarding the crash survivability aspects of small aircraft equipped with shoulder harnesses.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/695086FF2B1B8594862569EA00695B10?OpenDocument
135. AC 91-67 Minimum Equipment Requirements for GA Operations Under FAR 91
This AC describes acceptable methods for the operation of aircraft under 14 CFR Part 91 with inop. instruments and equipment which are not essential for safe flight.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/13C094A06437C5FA862569D900744D86?OpenDocument
136. AC 91-69A Seaplane Safety for FAR Part 91 Operators
This AC contains recommendations for seaplane operators regarding seaplane preflight, oral briefings, the use of safety belts, escape & egress after capsizing, and water survival.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/57E9643FB2723C6D862569D900744E26?OpenDocument
138.AC 91-73 Single-Pilot Procedures during Taxi Operations
This AC provides guidelines for the development and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOP) for conducting safe aircraft operations during taxiing.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1020226
139. AC 91-74 Pilot Guide: Flight in Icing Conditions
This AC contains information concerning safe flight in icing conditions, what conditions should be avoided, and information on how to avoid those conditions if encountered.
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1028388
140. AC 91-75 Attitude Indicator
The purpose of this AC is to provide a method to substitute an approved attitude indicator for a rate-of-turn indicator.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/26BA6B66CF38D2BC86256D560054CE8A?OpenDocument
145. AC 120-80 In-Flight Fires
This AC was developed and issued by the FAA to address a number of issues linked to in-flight fires
https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1026526
147. AC 135-17 Pilot Guide - Small Aircraft Ground Deicing (pocket)
This AC contains information and recommendations to assist pilots in conducting ground operations during weather conditions conducive to aircraft icing.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/C9E9B5A6A2BE5858862569F1005F7FBA?OpenDocument
148. AC 150/5210-20 Ground Vehicle Operations on Airports
This AC provides guidance to airport operators in developing training programs for safe ground vehicle operations and pedestrian control on the airside of an airport.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/E5CCF5FFA47DCDF7862574170070ABF7?OpenDocument
149. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, AC 43.13-1 Chg.1
This AC contains acceptable methods, techniques, and practices for aircraft inspection and repair when there are no manufacturer repair or maintenance instructions.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/99C827DB9BAAC81B86256B4500596C4E?OpenDocument
150. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, AC 43.13-2
This AC contains methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Administrator for the inspection and alteration on non-pressurized areas of small civil aircraft.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/11E144125D63FE548625740A00731B4A?OpenDocument
152. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, 14 CFR Pt. 23 Airworthiness Standards
14 CFR Part 23 is a list of sound engineering principals and design features that define a safe normal, utility, acrobatic, or commuter Category Airplane.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr23_main_02.tpl
153. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, 14 CFR Pt. 27 Airworthiness Standards
14 CFR Part 27 Airworthiness Standards is a list of sound engineering principals and design features that define a safe normal category rotorcraft.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr27_main_02.tpl
154. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, 14 CFR Pt. 33 Airworthiness Standards
14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards is a list of sound engineering principals and design features that define a safe aircraft engine.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr33_main_02.tpl
155. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, 14 CFR Pt. 35 Airworthiness Standards
14 CFR Part 35 Airworthiness Standards is a list of sound engineering principals and design features that define a safe propeller.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr35_main_02.tpl
156. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, AC 23-2A Flammability Tests
This AC contains general flammability requirements for certain structure, electrical wire, cables and associated equipment, cabin and cargo compartment materials.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/4770B57356B4C0EC862573210067F2B9?OpenDocument
158. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, AC 23-13A Fatigue Evaluation of Metalli
This AC provides information on fatigue, fail-safe, and damage tolerance evaluations of metallic structure in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes.
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/CCAE8A15127D66408625708C00710BA4?OpenDocument
159. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, AC 23-17 Systems and Equipment Guide
This AC provides information and guidance about systems and equipment in normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes and airships
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1019689
160. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, AC 23-19A Airframe Certification Guide
This AC provides information and guidance about airframe design of normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes and airships
http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAdvisoryCircular.nsf/0/D1A4060F22939F36862572EB0061CA3F?OpenDocument
164. Design and Workmanship Suggestions, FAA-H-8083-30 Aviation Maintenance Tech
This Handbook provides information on general maintenance training material. (Airframe & Powerplant Mechanics General Handbook)
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aircraft/amt_handbook/media/faa-8083-30_frontpages.pdf
177. 14 CFR Part 103 Ultralight Vehicles
Part 103 prescribes rules governing the operation of ultralight vehicles in the United States.
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title14/14cfr103_main_02.tpl
178. FAA-H-8083-1 Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook
This handbook provides aircraft operators with a method of determining the empty weight and empty-weight center of gravity of an aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-1.pdf
180. FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook
The Airplane Flying Handbook is designed as a technical manual to introduce basic pilot skills and knowledge that
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aircraft/airplane_handbook/
181. FAA-H-8083-5 Weight-Shift Aircraft Flying Handbook
The Weight-Shift Control Aircraft Flying Handbook introduces the basic pilot knowledge and skills that are essential for piloting WSC aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-5.pdf
182. FAA-H-8083-6 Advanced Avionics Handbook
The Advanced Avionics Handbook is designed to provide general aviation users with information on advanced avionics equipment in technically advanced aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/advanced_avionics_handbook/
183. FAA-H-8083-9 Aviation Instructor’s Handbook
The Aviation Instructor’s Handbook was developed to help beginning instructors understand and apply the fundamentals of instruction.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/aviation_instructors_handbook/media/faa-h-8083-9a.pdf
184. FAA-H-8083-13 Glider Flying Handbook
The Glider Flying Handbook is a technical manual for applicants who are preparing for glider category rating and for current glider pilots who wish to improve their knowledge.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aircraft/glider_handbook/
186. FAA-H-8083-17 Parachute Rigger Handbook
This operational handbook introduces the basic skills necessary for acquiring a parachute rigger certificate.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/prh_change1_changes.pdf
187. FAA-H-8083-19A Plane Sense General Aviation Information
Plane Sense introduces aircraft owners and operators to basic information about the requirements involved in owning a private aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-19a.pdf
188. FAA-H-8083-29 Powered Parachute Flying Handbook
The Powered Parachute Flying Handbook is a technical manual for applicants who are preparing for a PP category rating and for current PP pilots who wish to improve their knowledge.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/powered_parachute_handbook.pdf
189. FAA-H-8083-21 Rotorcraft Flying Handbook
This Handbook is a technical manual for applicants who are preparing for their private, commercial, or flight instructor pilot certificates with a rotorcraft class rating.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aircraft/media/faa-h-8083-21.pdf
190. FAA-H-8083-23 Seaplane, Ski plane, and Float/Ski equipped Helicopter Operat
This handbook is intended for pilots who already hold pilot certificates and who are learning to fly seaplanes, ski planes, or helicopters equipped for water or ski operations.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/seaplane_handbook/media/faa-h-8083-23-2.pdf
191. FAA-H-8083-25A Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
The Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge provides basic knowledge for the student pilot, as well as pilots seeking advanced pilot certification.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/phak/media/pilot_handbook.pdf
192. FAA-H-8083-27A Student Pilot Guide
This publication is a guide for prospective student pilots, student pilots, sport pilots, recreational pilots, and private pilots.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-27a.pdf
193. FAA/FS-I-8700-1 Information For Banner Tow Operations
This publication is an information guide for banner tow operations, to promote safe operations through careful preparation and planning.
http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/media/faa-fs.pdf
195. AM-400-09/4 Acceleration in Aviation: G-Force
This brochure explains the physiological effects of acceleration caused by maneuvering of aircraft.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/Acceleration.pdf
197. AM-400-95/2 Altitude-Induced Decompression Sickness
This brochure explains the physiological effects of altitude induced decompression sickness.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/DCS.pdf
198. OK05-0270 Carbon Monoxide: A deadly Menace
Carbon monoxide poisoning is a safety issue that pilots tend to ignore, even though it is the most common industrial poisoning accident in the United States.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/CObroforweb.pdf
199. AM-400-09/3 Circadian Rhythm Disruption and Flying
Your circadian rhythm must be maintained to operate within normal working parameters, or a variety of negative effects will occur, and some of these could become a safety-of-flight issue.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/Circadian_Rhythm.pdf
200. AM-400-03/2 Deep Vein Thrombosis and Travel
Any situation where one’s activity is limited for long periods, a long automobile drive, train ride, or flight may contribute to a Deep Vein Thrombosis.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/DVT_07182005.pdf
201. OK-07-193 Fatigue in Aviation
If a fatigued person is involved in safety-related activities such as piloting an aircraft, performing surgery, or running a nuclear reactor, the consequences of fatigue can be disastrous.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/Fatigue_Aviation.pdf
202. AM-400/09/2 Fit for Flight
The purpose of this brochure is to provide you with basic guidelines for developing a balanced physical fitness program and customizing a workout to fit your needs.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/FitFor_Flight.pdf
204. AM-400-90/2 Hypoxia The higher you fly…The less Air in the Sky
Our body doesn’t give us reliable signals at the onset of hypoxia unless we have received training to recognize the symptoms.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/hypoxia.pdf
205. OK-06-148 Information for Pilots Considering Laser Eye Surgery
The information in this brochure describes the benefits as well as possible pitfalls laser refractive surgery offers to those considering these procedures.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/LaserEye_II.pdf
206. AM-400-01/2 Medical Certification Questions and Answers
The purpose of this brochure is to provide you with A checklist for speeding your medical certification decision.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/Checklist.pdf
207. Poster, Medications and Flying
You should know all the facts when you consider taking medicine. A good general rule to follow is not to fly if you must depend on the medication to keep the flight safe.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/meds_flying_pstr.pdf
209. AM-400-01 Aviation Safety Courses Available Through the FAA
Pilots who are knowledgeable about physiological phenomena encountered in the aviation environment are better prepared to deal with potentially fatal inflight events.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/physiologc.pdf
211. AM-400-98/2 Pilot Vision
This brochure describes features of our vision that effect flight such as visual illusions, the anatomical blind spot, field of vision, night blindness, and focus.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/Pilot_Vision.pdf
212. AM-400-90/2 Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses Smart Protection in Small Air
This brochure promotes the use of shoulder harnesses. Studies have shown that the proper use of shoulder harnesses would reduce major injuries by 88 percent.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/seatbelts.pdf
213. AM-400-95/1 Smoke Toxicity
This brochure briefs aircrew on the dangers of smoke inhalation. Extinguishment of fires obviously has first priority, but smoke inhalation should be recognized as a very real danger.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/Smoke.pdf
218. Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC) Guidance
This guide offers optional guidance for the Instrument Proficiency Check; the goal is to help determine that an ICP candidate has skills for safe operation in all aspects of instrument flying.
http://www.faa.gov/pilots/training/media/IPC_Guidance.pdf