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Course Name:
ALC-556: Adapting Threat and Error Management to General Aviation
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Presented by:
Aeronautical Proficiency Training, LLC
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  • Accidents rarely happen due to a single event or error; rather, they result from a chain of events or errors. Breaking the chain can prevent an accident from occurring, and the pilot’s goal should be to break the chain at the earliest possible point.
  • Threat and Error Management (TEM) training contributes to that goal. It recognizes that pilots operate in a complex and highly dynamic environment, one in which every action taken can be critical.
  • “TEM-building” focuses on learning to recognize threats, which come “at” you, and errors, which come “from” you, and on providing tools you can use to manage them before they become a second link in the accident chain.
  • TEM differs from CRM. CRM has a “conceptual” flavor, while TEM focuses on the practical with specific things you can do.
  • Threats, which come “at” you, come in three categories: operational, environmental, and mismanaged.
  • Some threats are observable; others are latent.
  • Errors, which come “from” you, also come in three categories:  aircraft handling errors, procedural errors, and communication errors.
  • Threats and errors can lead to a safety-compromising “Undesired Aircraft State” that reduces safety margins.
  • Human beings are both the problem and the solution.
  • TEM tools include anticipation, recognition, and recovery.
  • Anticipation is a strategy; recognition and recovery are countermeasures that trap threats and errors and keep them from compounding.
  • Though initially developed for airline use, TEM is very scalable and adaptable to GA flight operations – flight instruction, single pilot, and crew operations.